Key terms – Quick Glossary

Pope – The Catholic Church regards the pope as the successor of St Peter and, as such, he has full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the church in matters such as faith and discipline. The pope is elected by a college of cardinals and sits at the top of a strict hierarchy consisting of cardinals, archbishops, bishops and priests.

Beliefs – The set of principles held and taught by the Church. These were on the New and Old testament of the Bible.

 

 

 

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When was the start of the Reformation?

It’s argued that the reformation began at 4 different dates. These dates are 1505, 1516, 1517 and 1521. This is because in :

1505 – Martin Luther was in a close life encounter, in a thunderstorm which almost killed him. He promised he’d devote his life to God if he spared his life. True to his word, he joined the priesthood immediately.

1516 – He discovered a phrase in his bible which he believed to differ from the of Catholicism.

1517 – Luther nailed the 95 thesis on the Church door at Wittenberg.

1521 – Martin Luther is accused of  Heresy and was ordered to recount.

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The Battle for Quebec

Dan Snow’s Death or Victory spans the story of the Battle of Quebec and the growing hostility between France and England.

This truely epic novel, is informative and engaging for both the ignorant and specialist individual of 18th Century British and French History.

If you’d like to know more on this subject, I’d highly recommend reading Death or Victory: The battle for Quebec and the birth of the Empire. 

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Triumph and terror – The Battle of Trafalgar, an introduction

The year; 1805, Napolean’s pestilential attitude will soon be met by the might of Lord Nelson’s potent Navy. To the ignorant eye, it’d seem Bonaparte would have little worries and Britain would be facing the calamitous repercussion, with 33 British ships and an opposing French and Spanish fleet of 41, it was evident they’d loose.

The odds were against them, with insufficient ship numbers, what could Britain really offer which could overturn the might of Napolean’s vainglorious empire?

Firstly, Nelson thought Tactics over power, evidently the Brits couldn’t use force due to their geographical size. The French and Spanish easily out sized them, and thus had more land and workers and in turn more ships. Therefore, going in ‘guns blazing’ wasn’t option. He instructed his flotilla to sail to the sides of the fleet, in two seperate columns. His aim was to split the combines line of ships in to three pieces, where they could each individually be surrounded and destroyed.

Furthermore, France’s ignorance was apparent. With their foremost generals executed in the French revolution, they had little knowledge or experience to guide them through the battle. Britain’s consistent leadership meant that their generals and soldiers had a wealth of experience to take to battle, whilst all major people within France were killed.

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Why was Adolf Hitler so popular by 1933?

1933, the political system is brawling with a frenzy of extremist parties, amongst them was Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party. But why by 1933 was he so popular? After all, just 10 years prior, Hitler was a failing leader harnessing the infamous role of a failed revolutionist.

Fear of Communism – The people of Germany wanted a capitalist run country, where each man can buy and trade at their leisure. This strong fear that the people harnessed, caused them to vote for the next highest political party – the Nazis. Therefore, we can see that the Communists actually helped Hitler in his campaign to chancellor in 1933!

Wealthy Backers –  Rich business owners and other corporate managers had an abundance of money. They were living the epitome of those who take advantage of a capitalist style economy, the rich live comfortably and the poor  struggle to survive. The wealthy community of Germany paid the Nazi party large amounts of  money to stage propaganda, and therefore people will vote for Hitler. This ensured the affluent community remained wealthy as the Communists would be halted in their campaign.

Hitler’s ability as a speaker – Adolf, as a political leader, had a very unique style. He stood out above all else, people were flabbergasted by his speeches and he was indelible. Therefore, his potent style of leadership and conveniently timed crisis (Wall Street Crash) led to him being accepted as the “savoir of Germany“.

TIP: Can you think of anymore? Think back to events near to this time, the Wall Street Crash perhaps? How would this benefit him?

Exam technique:  What factors led to Hitler building the Nazi party to it’s fame in 1933?  

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1923 – The year of crisis? The invasion of the Ruhr to the Munich Beer Hall Putsch.

In this article we shall learn about how Germany was affected by three series of events in 1923. Aimed at GCSE students studying Germany as their depth study in OCR Modern History, but may be applicable to other courses. 

1923 was a “year of crisis” for Germany under the Weimar republic. With the occupation of the Ruhr valley, the economic catastrophe known as hyperinflation and the Munich Beer Hall Putsch, 1923 was seen by many as a key failure in the Weimar’s life span.

The first infamous event in the year of crisis was the French invasion of the Ruhr.  The invasion, on behalf of the French, was a result of Germany’s weak economy. They couldn’t keep up with the unjust reparations set into place by the allies, and therefore stopped paying them. Furious, the French decided to take stern action and killed 132 people and expelled 150,000 Ruhr Germans  from their homes.

Ebert, the leader of the Weimar republic decided to print more money to tackle the huge economic problem made worse by the French and their occupation of the Ruhr valley. However, this eventually led to too much money in circulation in the economy, and therefore caused an extreme form of inflation in Germany- hyperinflation.  With the huge increase of inflation within the economy this meant people’s savings were worthless, and now poverty increased.

Adolf Hitler saw this his moment to seize power, and on the 8th of November he attempted revolution with 600 SA (Storm Troopers) members.  3 Police members were killed.

If not for Hyperinflation, it is thought Hitler wouldn’t have attempted a revolution in 1923 as he thought the public would support his party.

TIP: For an A* you have to explain how all three events are linked and how they affected society!

Exam technique: Which event was worse for the Weimar republic? Clue – It’s not specifically one!

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Unit 1: The Reformation in Europe, c1500-1564 – Keywords

In this article we’ll be looking at simple key words to introduce ourselves into the basics of The Papacy and reform. These words will form a very brief basis of the European aspect of 16th Century History AS level and should be learnt.

Reformation – The process of pivotal change within society.

Protestant – A new form of Christianity, in protest against the Catholic Church.

Holy Roman Empire – The seculor head of Christendom

Erasmus – A leading humanist.

Heresy – An opposite opinion to the Catholic view.

Martin Luther – Protestant leader.

Indulgences – Paper signed by the pope to send you to heaven.

Charles V – Holy Roman Emperor in 1519.

John Calvin – Protestant leader.

 Ana baptism – People must be baptized again, even children who’ve already had the process done already.

Ignatius Loyola – A leader of the “society of Jesus”.

Jesuits – A group of religious influential people.

Council of Trent – A group of people who had meetings to create clear definitions of the Catholic doctrine and to reform discipline of the church.

Categories: A-level 16th Century | Leave a comment

A first look at History solutions for kids

Hi,
Welcome to the very first post on the highly anticipated History solutions for kids. We hope our website can provide a wealth of knowledge on AQA A-level History (16th Century), OCR GCSE Modern History and other general historical events.

To locate specific articles, you can use the search function at top right of the page.

We look forward to guiding you.

Alex.

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